Indian philosophy Indian philosophy Sanskrit:
These personal experiences Philosophy of religion essay questions to be highly important to the individuals who undergo them. Both monotheistic and non-monotheistic religious thinkers and mystics have appealed to religious experiences as evidence for their claims about ultimate reality.
Philosophers such as Richard Swinburne and William Alston have compared religious experiences to everyday perceptions, that is, both are noetic and have a perceptual object, and thus religious experiences could logically be veridical unless we have a good reason to disbelieve them.
Indeed, a drunken or hallucinating person could still perceive things correctly, therefore these objections cannot be said to necessarily disprove all religious experiences.
Martin, "there are no tests agreed upon to establish genuine experience of God and distinguish it decisively from the ungenuine", and therefore all that religious experiences can establish is the reality of these psychological states.
Each is in an abnormal physical condition, and therefore has abnormal perceptions. Perhaps this assumption is reasonable, but it certainly is not obviously true. He argues that for the individual who experiences them, they are authoritative and they break down the authority of the rational mind.
Not only that, but according to James, the mystic is justified in this. But when it comes to the non-mystic, the outside observer, they have no reason to regard them as either veridical nor delusive.
Types[ edit ] Depiction of the theophany scene in the Bhagavadgita wherein Krishna reveals his universal form to Arjuna.
Just like there are different religions, there are different forms of religious experience. Indian texts like the Bhagavadgita contain descriptions as well. The diversity sometimes to the point of contradiction of religious experiences has also been used as an argument against their veridical nature, and as evidence that they are a purely subjective psychological phenomenon.
According to Schleiermacher, the distinguishing feature of a religious experience is that "one is overcome by the feeling of absolute dependence. He described this as "non-rational, non-sensory experience or feeling whose primary and immediate object is outside the self" as well as having the qualities of being a mystery, terrifying and fascinating.
The extrovertive way looks outward through the senses into the world around us and finds the divine reality there. The introvertive way turns inward and finds the divine reality in the deepest part of the self.
Non-monotheistic religions meanwhile also report different experiences from theophany, such as non-dual experiences of oneness and deeply focused meditative states termed Samadhi in Indian religion as well as experiences of final enlightenment or liberation mokshanirvanakevala.
Another typology, offered by Chad Meister, differentiates between three major experiences: Charismatic experiences, in which special gifts, abilities, or blessings are manifested such as healing, visions, etc.
Mystical experienceswhich can be described using William James qualifications as being: IneffableNoetictransient and passive. Perennialism vs Constructivism[ edit ] Another debate on this topic is whether all religious cultures share common or core mystical experiences Perennialism or whether these experiences are in some way socially and culturally constructed Constructivism or Contextualism.
According to Walter Stace all cultures share mystical experiences of oneness with the external world, as well as introverted "Pure Conscious Events" which is empty of all concepts, thoughts, qualities, etc.
Perennialists tend to distinguish between the experience itself, and its post experience interpretation to make sense of the different views in world religions. All religions argue for certain values and ideas of the moral Good.
Non-monotheistic Indian traditions like Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta find the highest Good in nirvana or moksha which leads to release from suffering and the rounds of rebirth and morality is a means to achieve this, while for monotheistic traditions, God is the source or ground of all morality and heaven in the highest human good.
The world religions also offer different conceptions of the source of evil and suffering in the world, that is, what is wrong with human life and how to solve and free ourselves from these dilemmas. A general question which philosophy of religion asks is what is the relationship, if any, between morality and religion.
Brian Davies outlines four possible theses: Morality is somehow included in religion, "The basic idea here is that being moral is part of what being religious means. Morality and religion are opposed to each other.
In this view, belief in a God would mean one would do whatever that God commands, even if it goes against morality. Miracle Belief in miracles and supernatural events or occurrences is common among world religions.
A miracle is an event which cannot be explained by rational or scientific means. The Resurrection of Jesus and the Miracles of Muhammad are examples of miracles claimed by religions.
Skepticism towards the supernatural can be found in early philosophical traditions like the Indian Carvaka school and Greco-Roman philosophers like Lucretius.
David Humewho defined a miracle as "a violation of the laws of nature", famously argued against miracles in Of MiraclesSection X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding Secondly, Rowe argues that Hume overestimates "the weight that should be given to past experience in support of some principle thought to be a law of nature.
It is easy to believe the person who claimed to see water run downhill, but quite difficult to believe that someone saw water run uphill. This view rejects that a miracle is a transgression of natural laws, but is simply a transgression of our current understanding of natural law.
In the Tractatus Theologico-PoliticusSpinoza writes:Choose from any of these essay topics on Philosophy and Philosophy Of Religion.
Research Haven's database of term paper and essay topics is the home to close to , sample papers for you to choose from. Philosophy of Religion. The dogma and tenets of many different religions also work as philosophical musings on life, spirituality, and the connection between the natural world and the supernatural.
Mar 25, · Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Possible Essay Questions for the First Exam Introduction to Philosophy, Fall The first exam will be on Tuesday, Sept.
There will be a review session, philosophy seminar room, 11th floor 34 Peachtree, Monday 9/27 at 3 p.m. Philosophy of religion deals with questions that involve religion and religious ideas from a philosophically neutral perspective (as opposed to theology which begins from religious convinctions).
Choose from any of these essay topics on Philosophy and Philosophy Of Religion. Research Haven's database of term paper and essay topics is the home to close .