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The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantarawhen in he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE. They arrived around 4, years ago, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE.
This period marked a renaissance of Hindu- Buddhist art in ancient Java. In western Java, Sunda Kingdom was re-established circa according to Sanghyang Tapak inscription. In Balithe Warmadewas established their rule in the 10th century. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Madaits influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia.
For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.
For almost years, the company was the dominant European power in the archipelago. Inthe Netherlands introduced the Dutch Ethical Policy that was aimed at improving living conditions and welfare, expanding education to native peoples,  and preparing the archipelago for self-government under Dutch control.
A later United Nations report stated that the Japanese occupation resulted in a total of 4 million deaths. The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and an armed and diplomatic struggle ensued. In Decemberthe Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure,  with the exception of the Netherlands New Guineawhich was later incorporated into Indonesia following the New York Agreement and the disputed referendum that led to the ongoing Papua conflict.
In the late s, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the Communist Party of Indonesia Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI.
His New Order administration  was supported by the United States,    and encouraged foreign direct investment  which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. However, his administration was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition.
Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, sectarian discontent and violence have persisted.
Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest. Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guineaand include KapuasBaritoMamberamoSepik and Mahakam ; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
Climate of Indonesia Typical Indonesian rainforest, mostly found in Kalimantan and Sumatra Lying along the equatorIndonesia's climate tends to be relatively even year-round.
However, cooler climate types do exist in mountainous regions of Indonesia 1, to 1, metres 4, to 4, feet above sea level. Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatraexperience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season, and floods in the wet.
Parts of Sulawesi and some islands closer to Australia, such as Sumba is drier. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March.Having trouble to prepare for Hari Raya?
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Survival Guide: 20 Hari Raya Tips to Keep That Weight Off 2 WELCOME TO MY HARI RAYA SURVIVAL GUIDE Survival Guide: 20 Hari Raya Tips to Keep That Weight Off.
Top 5 Hari Raya food. Search articles. By Kristina K. 3 JUL Survival guide to the rest of the term. So you’ve settled into the rhythm of a new term or at least it was a new term a few weeks ago! The ultimate guide to surviving your first year at university as an international student.
Say hello to kuehs that even your disapproving Nonya mother-in-law will give the nod to. Delicious and cheap, Genting Nonya Cake and Confectionary sells a wide variety of kuehs at cut-throat prices.
$ won’t get you a packet of tissue, but here it's more than enough for a solid slice of Lapis Sagu. The Chiling Falls are probably the most beautiful waterfalls of Selangor. They can be reached after an adventurous trek along the river, which has to be crossed many times.
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